canvas图形绘制之星空、噪点与烟雾效果

canvas图形绘制之星空、噪点与烟雾效果

2016/06/07 · HTML5 · 1
评论 ·
Canvas

原文出处:
张鑫旭(@张鑫旭)   

一直以来都没有对Canvas进行深入的学习,工作中的项目也基本上没有涉及到Canvas的技术知识,所以这次前端小组选择研究方向,就选择了Canvas作为其中的一个方向。

基于HTML5 Canvas的网页画板实现教程,html5canvas

HTML5的功能非常强大,尤其是Canvas的应用更加广泛,Canvas画布上面不仅可以绘制任意的图形,而且可以实现多种多样的动画,甚至是一些交互式的应用,比如网页网版。这次我们要来看的就是一款基于HTML5
Canvas的网页画板,在这里仅对一些关键性的代码进行记录,大家也可以下载全部源代码研究。

图片 1

你也可以再这里查看在线演示

下面我们来简单地分析一下实现这个HTML5网页画板的原理及代码,代码由HTML以及Javascript组成,主要还是Javascript代码。

一、三合一

三个效果合成一篇文章。

有多个小伙伴问我,为何不开个公众号,现在都是移动时代,你博客文章写好后,公众号再复制一份,花不了多长时间,同时传播方便迅速,打赏方便快捷,显然低成本高收益。

从眼前来看,似乎确实如此。

但是,就我个人而言,行为和处事准则总是遵循内心的直觉和大方向的指引。说不上具体的道理,就是觉得,作品的输出源如果不止一个,久远来看,带来的未知损耗一定要大于短期的已知收益。

取巧的事情多慎思而克己,就好比本文内容,实际上,三个不同的canvas效果,直接分3篇来写,凑个文章数,增加点浏览量其实也是无可厚非的。然,想了想,有点不像自己的style,内心真实的自己并不希望自己这么做,于是,就3个效果合体为一篇文章。

拒绝小部分的诱惑,让自己过得更轻松。

本文的3个效果都是源自我最近做的几个真实的项目,是canvas领域基本入门的一些效果。代码我都专门重新梳理了下,必要注释也都加上去了,方便大家的学习。然后,如果你有不懂的地方,请不要来问我,没错,是不要,我并不欢迎你找我来交流,自己一点一点去弄明白。因为,如果连这么基本的canvas效果都不理解,我真的也帮不了你什么。倒不是说腾不出时间,而是腾不出精力,每天微博私信还有邮箱找我的人还挺多,实在应接不暇。

我的主要学习途径是学习了慕课网站的视频教程,并且实现了一些小的例子。附上教程地址:http://www.imooc.com/learn/185(Canvas绘图详解)
下个阶段学习重点就是实现以下倒计时的代码示例。

HTML代码:

<div style="width:530px;margin:10px auto">
    <div id="canvasDiv"></div>
  </div>

HTML代码非常简单,仅仅是构造了一个canvas容器,我们的画板就在这个地方生成。

二、canvas图形效果之旋转星空

图片 2

图是死的,效果是活的,IE9+浏览器下,您可以狠狠地点击这里:canvas实现的旋转星空效果demo

会看到地球上方会有很多星星在慢慢地绕着地球转啊转,星星在闪啊闪。

像这类密集型canvas效果,一般离不开下面这几个关键字:实例,随机,变化与重绘,requestAnimationFrame。

原理就是:

  1. 先画一个位置透明度随机的静态的星星实例对象;
  2. 有一个可以改变星星位置和透明度的draw方法;
  3. 定时器跑起来,画布不停地清除与绘制,动画效果完成!

原理很简单。

本例子实现的2个难点在于:

  1. 月明星稀
    星星垂直方向实际上是个伪随机,越靠近地球,星星越密集,而越往上,越稀疏。其算法如下:
JavaScript

var getMinRandom = function() { var rand = Math.random(); //
step的大小决定了星星靠近地球的聚拢程度, // step = Math.ceil(2 /
(1 - rand))就聚拢很明显 var step = Math.ceil(1 / (1 - rand)); var
arr = []; for (var i=0; i&lt;step; i++) { arr.push(Math.random());
} return Math.min.apply(null, arr); };

<table>
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 50%" />
<col style="width: 50%" />
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr class="odd">
<td><div class="crayon-nums-content" style="font-size: 13px !important; line-height: 15px !important;">
<div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-1">
1
</div>
<div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-2">
2
</div>
<div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-3">
3
</div>
<div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-4">
4
</div>
<div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-5">
5
</div>
<div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-6">
6
</div>
<div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-7">
7
</div>
<div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-8">
8
</div>
<div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-9">
9
</div>
<div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-10">
10
</div>
<div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-11">
11
</div>
<div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-12">
12
</div>
</div></td>
<td><div class="crayon-pre" style="font-size: 13px !important; line-height: 15px !important; -moz-tab-size:4; -o-tab-size:4; -webkit-tab-size:4; tab-size:4;">
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-1" class="crayon-line">
var getMinRandom = function() {
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-2" class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line">
    var rand = Math.random();
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-3" class="crayon-line">
    // step的大小决定了星星靠近地球的聚拢程度,
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-4" class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line">
    // step = Math.ceil(2 / (1 - rand))就聚拢很明显
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-5" class="crayon-line">
    var step = Math.ceil(1 / (1 - rand));
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-6" class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line">
    var arr = [];
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-7" class="crayon-line">
    for (var i=0; i&lt;step; i++) {
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-8" class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line">
        arr.push(Math.random());
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-9" class="crayon-line">
    }
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-10" class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line">
 
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-11" class="crayon-line">
    return Math.min.apply(null, arr);       
</div>
<div id="crayon-5b8f4a6436b2b195965046-12" class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line">
};
</div>
</div></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>

很大概率会返回一个数值偏小的值,于是,就可以有“月明星稀”的分布效果了。
  1. 圆弧轨迹
    其实很简单,我们套用高中时候学的圆方程式就可以了,如下注释截图所述:
    图片 3这下题目就简单了,已知a,b,
    求y相对于x的函数表达式……

下面是我总结的第一阶段的一些学习笔记:

Javascript代码:

首先我们通过一组变量来定义画板的样式,以及一些数据的初始化:

var canvas;
var context;
var canvasWidth = 490;
var canvasHeight = 220;
var padding = 25;
var lineWidth = 8;
var colorPurple = "#cb3594";
var colorGreen = "#659b41";
var colorYellow = "#ffcf33";
var colorBrown = "#986928";
var outlineImage = new Image();
var crayonImage = new Image();
var markerImage = new Image();
var eraserImage = new Image();
var crayonBackgroundImage = new Image();
var markerBackgroundImage = new Image();
var eraserBackgroundImage = new Image();
var crayonTextureImage = new Image();
var clickX = new Array();
var clickY = new Array();
var clickColor = new Array();
var clickTool = new Array();
var clickSize = new Array();
var clickDrag = new Array();
var paint = false;
var curColor = colorPurple;
var curTool = "crayon";
var curSize = "normal";
var mediumStartX = 18;
var mediumStartY = 19;
var mediumImageWidth = 93;
var mediumImageHeight = 46;
var drawingAreaX = 111;
var drawingAreaY = 11;
var drawingAreaWidth = 267;
var drawingAreaHeight = 200;
var toolHotspotStartY = 23;
var toolHotspotHeight = 38;
var sizeHotspotStartY = 157;
var sizeHotspotHeight = 36;
var sizeHotspotWidthObject = new Object();
sizeHotspotWidthObject.huge = 39;
sizeHotspotWidthObject.large = 25;
sizeHotspotWidthObject.normal = 18;
sizeHotspotWidthObject.small = 16;
var totalLoadResources = 8;
var curLoadResNum = 0;

接下来开始准备画布,也就是初始化Canvas对象:

function prepareCanvas()
{
    // Create the canvas (Neccessary for IE because it doesn't know what a canvas element is)
    var canvasDiv = document.getElementById('canvasDiv');
    canvas = document.createElement('canvas');
    canvas.setAttribute('width', canvasWidth);
    canvas.setAttribute('height', canvasHeight);
    canvas.setAttribute('id', 'canvas');
    canvasDiv.appendChild(canvas);
    if(typeof G_vmlCanvasManager != 'undefined') {
        canvas = G_vmlCanvasManager.initElement(canvas);
    }
    context = canvas.getContext("2d"); // Grab the 2d canvas context
    // Note: The above code is a workaround for IE 8 and lower. Otherwise we could have used:
    //     context = document.getElementById('canvas').getContext("2d");

    // Load images
    // -----------
    crayonImage.onload = function() { resourceLoaded(); 
    };
    crayonImage.src = "images/crayon-outline.png";
    //context.drawImage(crayonImage, 0, 0, 100, 100);

    markerImage.onload = function() { resourceLoaded(); 
    };
    markerImage.src = "images/marker-outline.png";

    eraserImage.onload = function() { resourceLoaded(); 
    };
    eraserImage.src = "images/eraser-outline.png";    

    crayonBackgroundImage.onload = function() { resourceLoaded(); 
    };
    crayonBackgroundImage.src = "images/crayon-background.png";

    markerBackgroundImage.onload = function() { resourceLoaded(); 
    };
    markerBackgroundImage.src = "images/marker-background.png";

    eraserBackgroundImage.onload = function() { resourceLoaded(); 
    };
    eraserBackgroundImage.src = "images/eraser-background.png";

    crayonTextureImage.onload = function() { resourceLoaded(); 
    };
    crayonTextureImage.src = "images/crayon-texture.png";

    outlineImage.onload = function() { resourceLoaded(); 
    };
    outlineImage.src = "images/watermelon-duck-outline.png";

    // Add mouse events
    // ----------------
    $('#canvas').mousedown(function(e)
    {
        // Mouse down location
        var mouseX = e.pageX - this.offsetLeft;
        var mouseY = e.pageY - this.offsetTop;

        if(mouseX < drawingAreaX) // Left of the drawing area
        {
            if(mouseX > mediumStartX)
            {
                if(mouseY > mediumStartY && mouseY < mediumStartY + mediumImageHeight){
                    curColor = colorPurple;
                }else if(mouseY > mediumStartY + mediumImageHeight && mouseY < mediumStartY + mediumImageHeight * 2){
                    curColor = colorGreen;
                }else if(mouseY > mediumStartY + mediumImageHeight * 2 && mouseY < mediumStartY + mediumImageHeight * 3){
                    curColor = colorYellow;
                }else if(mouseY > mediumStartY + mediumImageHeight * 3 && mouseY < mediumStartY + mediumImageHeight * 4){
                    curColor = colorBrown;
                }
            }
        }
        else if(mouseX > drawingAreaX + drawingAreaWidth) // Right of the drawing area
        {
            if(mouseY > toolHotspotStartY)
            {
                if(mouseY > sizeHotspotStartY)
                {
                    var sizeHotspotStartX = drawingAreaX + drawingAreaWidth;
                    if(mouseY < sizeHotspotStartY + sizeHotspotHeight && mouseX > sizeHotspotStartX)
                    {
                        if(mouseX < sizeHotspotStartX + sizeHotspotWidthObject.huge){
                            curSize = "huge";
                        }else if(mouseX < sizeHotspotStartX + sizeHotspotWidthObject.large + sizeHotspotWidthObject.huge){
                            curSize = "large";
                        }else if(mouseX < sizeHotspotStartX + sizeHotspotWidthObject.normal + sizeHotspotWidthObject.large + sizeHotspotWidthObject.huge){
                            curSize = "normal";
                        }else if(mouseX < sizeHotspotStartX + sizeHotspotWidthObject.small + sizeHotspotWidthObject.normal + sizeHotspotWidthObject.large + sizeHotspotWidthObject.huge){
                            curSize = "small";                        
                        }
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    if(mouseY < toolHotspotStartY + toolHotspotHeight){
                        curTool = "crayon";
                    }else if(mouseY < toolHotspotStartY + toolHotspotHeight * 2){
                        curTool = "marker";
                    }else if(mouseY < toolHotspotStartY + toolHotspotHeight * 3){
                        curTool = "eraser";
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        else if(mouseY > drawingAreaY && mouseY < drawingAreaY + drawingAreaHeight)
        {
            // Mouse click location on drawing area
        }
        paint = true;
        addClick(mouseX, mouseY, false);
        redraw();
    });

    $('#canvas').mousemove(function(e){
        if(paint==true){
            addClick(e.pageX - this.offsetLeft, e.pageY - this.offsetTop, true);
            redraw();
        }
    });

    $('#canvas').mouseup(function(e){
        paint = false;
          redraw();
    });

    $('#canvas').mouseleave(function(e){
        paint = false;
    });
}

看起来很复杂,前面主要是初始化canvas的背景图片,后面主要是初始化画笔事件,像click、mouseup、mouseleave等鼠标事件。

下面是draw的主要方法:

function redraw()
{
    // Make sure required resources are loaded before redrawing
    if(curLoadResNum < totalLoadResources){ return; }

    clearCanvas();

    var locX;
    var locY;
    if(curTool == "crayon")
    {
        // Draw the crayon tool background
        context.drawImage(crayonBackgroundImage, 0, 0, canvasWidth, canvasHeight);

        // Purple
        locX = (curColor == colorPurple) ? 18 : 52;
        locY = 19;

        context.beginPath();
        context.moveTo(locX + 41, locY + 11);
        context.lineTo(locX + 41, locY + 35);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 35);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 33);
        context.lineTo(locX + 11, locY + 27);
        context.lineTo(locX + 11, locY + 19);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 13);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 11);
        context.lineTo(locX + 41, locY + 11);
        context.closePath();
        context.fillStyle = colorPurple;
        context.fill();    

        if(curColor == colorPurple){
            context.drawImage(crayonImage, locX, locY, mediumImageWidth, mediumImageHeight);
        }else{
            context.drawImage(crayonImage, 0, 0, 59, mediumImageHeight, locX, locY, 59, mediumImageHeight);
        }

        // Green
        locX = (curColor == colorGreen) ? 18 : 52;
        locY += 46;

        context.beginPath();
        context.moveTo(locX + 41, locY + 11);
        context.lineTo(locX + 41, locY + 35);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 35);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 33);
        context.lineTo(locX + 11, locY + 27);
        context.lineTo(locX + 11, locY + 19);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 13);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 11);
        context.lineTo(locX + 41, locY + 11);
        context.closePath();
        context.fillStyle = colorGreen;
        context.fill();    

        if(curColor == colorGreen){
            context.drawImage(crayonImage, locX, locY, mediumImageWidth, mediumImageHeight);
        }else{
            context.drawImage(crayonImage, 0, 0, 59, mediumImageHeight, locX, locY, 59, mediumImageHeight);
        }

        // Yellow
        locX = (curColor == colorYellow) ? 18 : 52;
        locY += 46;

        context.beginPath();
        context.moveTo(locX + 41, locY + 11);
        context.lineTo(locX + 41, locY + 35);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 35);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 33);
        context.lineTo(locX + 11, locY + 27);
        context.lineTo(locX + 11, locY + 19);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 13);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 11);
        context.lineTo(locX + 41, locY + 11);
        context.closePath();
        context.fillStyle = colorYellow;
        context.fill();    

        if(curColor == colorYellow){
            context.drawImage(crayonImage, locX, locY, mediumImageWidth, mediumImageHeight);
        }else{
            context.drawImage(crayonImage, 0, 0, 59, mediumImageHeight, locX, locY, 59, mediumImageHeight);
        }

        // Yellow
        locX = (curColor == colorBrown) ? 18 : 52;
        locY += 46;

        context.beginPath();
        context.moveTo(locX + 41, locY + 11);
        context.lineTo(locX + 41, locY + 35);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 35);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 33);
        context.lineTo(locX + 11, locY + 27);
        context.lineTo(locX + 11, locY + 19);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 13);
        context.lineTo(locX + 29, locY + 11);
        context.lineTo(locX + 41, locY + 11);
        context.closePath();
        context.fillStyle = colorBrown;
        context.fill();    

        if(curColor == colorBrown){
            context.drawImage(crayonImage, locX, locY, mediumImageWidth, mediumImageHeight);
        }else{
            context.drawImage(crayonImage, 0, 0, 59, mediumImageHeight, locX, locY, 59, mediumImageHeight);
        }
    }
    else if(curTool == "marker")
    {
        // Draw the marker tool background
        context.drawImage(markerBackgroundImage, 0, 0, canvasWidth, canvasHeight);

        // Purple
        locX = (curColor == colorPurple) ? 18 : 52;
        locY = 19;

        context.beginPath();
        context.moveTo(locX + 10, locY + 24);
        context.lineTo(locX + 10, locY + 24);
        context.lineTo(locX + 22, locY + 16);
        context.lineTo(locX + 22, locY + 31);
        context.closePath();
        context.fillStyle = colorPurple;
        context.fill();    

        if(curColor == colorPurple){
            context.drawImage(markerImage, locX, locY, mediumImageWidth, mediumImageHeight);
        }else{
            context.drawImage(markerImage, 0, 0, 59, mediumImageHeight, locX, locY, 59, mediumImageHeight);
        }

        // Green
        locX = (curColor == colorGreen) ? 18 : 52;
        locY += 46;

        context.beginPath();
        context.moveTo(locX + 10, locY + 24);
        context.lineTo(locX + 10, locY + 24);
        context.lineTo(locX + 22, locY + 16);
        context.lineTo(locX + 22, locY + 31);
        context.closePath();
        context.fillStyle = colorGreen;
        context.fill();    

        if(curColor == colorGreen){
            context.drawImage(markerImage, locX, locY, mediumImageWidth, mediumImageHeight);
        }else{
            context.drawImage(markerImage, 0, 0, 59, mediumImageHeight, locX, locY, 59, mediumImageHeight);
        }

        // Yellow
        locX = (curColor == colorYellow) ? 18 : 52;
        locY += 46;

        context.beginPath();
        context.moveTo(locX + 10, locY + 24);
        context.lineTo(locX + 10, locY + 24);
        context.lineTo(locX + 22, locY + 16);
        context.lineTo(locX + 22, locY + 31);
        context.closePath();
        context.fillStyle = colorYellow;
        context.fill();    

        if(curColor == colorYellow){
            context.drawImage(markerImage, locX, locY, mediumImageWidth, mediumImageHeight);
        }else{
            context.drawImage(markerImage, 0, 0, 59, mediumImageHeight, locX, locY, 59, mediumImageHeight);
        }

        // Yellow
        locX = (curColor == colorBrown) ? 18 : 52;
        locY += 46;

        context.beginPath();
        context.moveTo(locX + 10, locY + 24);
        context.lineTo(locX + 10, locY + 24);
        context.lineTo(locX + 22, locY + 16);
        context.lineTo(locX + 22, locY + 31);
        context.closePath();
        context.fillStyle = colorBrown;
        context.fill();    

        if(curColor == colorBrown){
            context.drawImage(markerImage, locX, locY, mediumImageWidth, mediumImageHeight);
        }else{
            context.drawImage(markerImage, 0, 0, 59, mediumImageHeight, locX, locY, 59, mediumImageHeight);
        }
    }
    else if(curTool == "eraser")
    {
        context.drawImage(eraserBackgroundImage, 0, 0, canvasWidth, canvasHeight);
        context.drawImage(eraserImage, 18, 19, mediumImageWidth, mediumImageHeight);    
    }else{
        alert("Error: Current Tool is undefined");
    }

    if(curSize == "small"){
        locX = 467;
    }else if(curSize == "normal"){
        locX = 450;
    }else if(curSize == "large"){
        locX = 428;
    }else if(curSize == "huge"){
        locX = 399;
    }
    locY = 189;
    context.beginPath();
    context.rect(locX, locY, 2, 12);
    context.closePath();
    context.fillStyle = '#333333';
    context.fill();    

    // Keep the drawing in the drawing area
    context.save();
    context.beginPath();
    context.rect(drawingAreaX, drawingAreaY, drawingAreaWidth, drawingAreaHeight);
    context.clip();

    var radius;
    var i = 0;
    for(; i < clickX.length; i++)
    {        
        if(clickSize[i] == "small"){
            radius = 2;
        }else if(clickSize[i] == "normal"){
            radius = 5;
        }else if(clickSize[i] == "large"){
            radius = 10;
        }else if(clickSize[i] == "huge"){
            radius = 20;
        }else{
            alert("Error: Radius is zero for click " + i);
            radius = 0;    
        }

        context.beginPath();
        if(clickDrag[i] && i){
            context.moveTo(clickX[i-1], clickY[i-1]);
        }else{
            context.moveTo(clickX[i], clickY[i]);
        }
        context.lineTo(clickX[i], clickY[i]);
        context.closePath();

        if(clickTool[i] == "eraser"){
            //context.globalCompositeOperation = "destination-out"; // To erase instead of draw over with white
            context.strokeStyle = 'white';
        }else{
            //context.globalCompositeOperation = "source-over";    // To erase instead of draw over with white
            context.strokeStyle = clickColor[i];
        }
        context.lineJoin = "round";
        context.lineWidth = radius;
        context.stroke();

    }
    //context.globalCompositeOperation = "source-over";// To erase instead of draw over with white
    context.restore();

    // Overlay a crayon texture (if the current tool is crayon)
    if(curTool == "crayon"){
        context.globalAlpha = 0.4; // No IE support
        context.drawImage(crayonTextureImage, 0, 0, canvasWidth, canvasHeight);
    }
    context.globalAlpha = 1; // No IE support

    // Draw the outline image
    context.drawImage(outlineImage, drawingAreaX, drawingAreaY, drawingAreaWidth, drawingAreaHeight);
}

其实HTML5说白了还是需要很多Javascript支持,不过Canvas非常不错,可以让你在上面自由地绘制图形和动画。这款基于HTML5
Canvas的网页画板就是一个很好的例子。源代码下载>>

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